## Hydraulics of Sediment Transport

**OBJECTIVE**

The objective of this course is to transfer the knowledge of recent advances in the field of hydraulics of sediment transport and its application in solving problems of modern engineering. Since the course covers the principles and applications of sediment transport at an advanced level, it is necessary that students have taken a previous course in the subject.

**CONTENTS**

**Week 1:**Introduction to the origin of the Morpho-dynamics in rivers and Sediment Characterization

Review fluid properties: Density and specific gravity, viscosity. River morphodynamics, introduction to sediment transport, , Saint Venant equations, Exner, derivation equation in 1D. Characterization of sediments, size distribution, density and porosity, settling velocity of a particle, angle of repose.

**Week 2:**Introduction to the Theory of Vectors in Fluids

Definition, Laplacian operator, identities, physical meaning of gradient, divergence theorem (Gauss theorem), conservation of mass expressed on a control volume, Navier Stokes equations. Hydraulic geometry of mountain rivers.

**Week 3:**Computational Flow Dynamics

Introduction, computation fluid dynamics approach, possibilities and limitations of numerical methods, components of a numerical solution method, properties of numerical solution methods. Derivation of equations describing the conservation of bed sediment.

**Week 4:**Finite Difference Method

Introduction, implicit and explicit method, formulation of equations. Application to the hydraulics of sediment transport.

**Week 5:**Finite Volume Method

Finite volume method: Approximation of surface integrals, approximation of volume integrals, interpolation and differentiation, implementation of boundary conditions. Application to the hydraulics of sediment transport.

**Week 6:**Finite Element Method

Introduction, problem domain, size, shape and location of the element, weight functions, boundary conditions: Dirichlet and Neumann. Application to the hydraulics of sediment transport.

**Week 7**. Mid Term

**Weeks 8 and 9:**Modeling of alluvial bed forms in rivers, hydraulic resistance, and suspended sediment transport.

Dunes, anti-dunes, 1D formulation, potential flow, experimental results, relations of hydraulic resistance in rivers, relations for the entrainment and 1d transport of suspended sediment, calculation for bedload, suspended load and total bed material load

**Weeks 10 and 11:**The Quasi-Steady Approximation, 1D Aggradation and Degradation of Rivers and Modeling of Reservoirs.

Quasi-steady approach, aggradation and degradation of rivers 1D: The assumption of normal flow, standard formulation for morphodynamics. Sedimentation of reservoirs. Erosion in alluvial rivers and streams of high gradient.

**Week 12:**Morphodynamics of Bedrock and Alluvial Transitions, hyper-concentrated flows

Quantification of transport capacity, transforming the Exner equation for Moving-Boundary coordinates, 1D numerical solution. Advective diffusion, diffusion of suspended and hyperconcentrated flows.

**Week 13 and 14:**Hydrodynamic Models for Transport of sediment Hydraulcs

Current status of numerical flow models in 1D, 2D and 3 D and sediment transport. Numerical and computational techniques. Description of FLO-2D model, boundary conditions, and flow model setup.

**Week 15:**Final exam.

**EVALUATION SYSTEM**

- Midterm: 25%

- Final exam: 25%

- Final project: 30%

- Weekly homework: 20%

**References:**

Chanson, H., 2004, The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction Basic principles, sediment motion, hydraulic modelling, design of hydraulic structures, Second Edition, Elsevier.

Ferziger, J.H. and Peric, M., 2002. Computational Fluid Dynamics. Third Edition, Springer.

Hervouet, Jean-Michel., 2007, Hydrodynamic of Free Surface Flows, Modeling with the Finite Element Method, Ed. John Wiley.

Powell, D. M., Reid, I. and Laronne, J. B., 2001, Evolution of bedload grain-size distribution with increasing flow strength and the effect of flow duration on the caliber of bedload sediment yield in ephemeral gravel-bed rivers,

*Water Resources Research*, 37(5), 1463-1474.

Parker, G., e-book., 2004, 1D Sediment Transport Morphodynamics with Applications to Rivers and Turbidity Currents.

Wong, M. and Parker, G., submitted, The bedload transport relation of Meyer-Peter and Müller overpredicts by a factor of two,

*Journal of Hydraulic Engineering*, downloadable at http://cee.uiuc.edu/people/parkerg/preprints.htm .

Whipple, K. X., G. S. Hancock, and R. S. Anderson, 2000, River incision into bedrock: Mechanics and relative efficacy of plucking, abrasion, and cavitation,

*Geol. Soc. Am. Bull.*,

*112*, 490–503.

Wong, M. and Parker, G., submitted, The bedload transport relation of Meyer-Peter and Müller overpredicts by a factor of two,

*Journal of Hydraulic Engineering*, downloadable at http://cee.uiuc.edu/people/parkerg/preprints.htm .

Lectures (semester March-July 2013):